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BIO 330: Scientific and Peer Review Articles

This libguide serves to help students on how to do research and use the library's resources.

Anatomy of a Scientific Paper

Source: Plant Physiology

How to Read a Scientific Paper

Attempting to read a scientific article for the first time may seem overwhelming and confusing. This guide details how to read a scientific article step-by-step. First, you should not approach a scientific article like a textbook. Additionally, it is highly recommended that you highlight and take notes as you move through the article. Taking notes will keep you focused on the task at hand and help you work towards comprehension of the entire article.

  1. Skim the article. This should only take you a few minutes. You are not trying to comprehend the entire article at this point, but just get a basic overview. Pay attention to the structure of the article, headings, and figures.
     
  2. Grasp the vocabulary. Begin to go through the article and highlight words and phrases you do not understand. Some words or phrases you may be able to get an understanding from the context in which it is used, but for others you may need the assistance of a medical or scientific dictionary.
     
  3. Identify the structure of the article and work on your comprehension. Most journals use an IMRD structure-- an abstract followed by an Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. If you learn to look for these features you will begin to read and comprehend the article more quickly.
     
    • The abstract gives a quick overview of the article. It will usually contain four pieces of information: purpose or rationale of study (why they did it); methodology (how they did it); results (what they found); and conclusion (what it means). Begin by reading the abstract to make sure this is what you are looking for and that it will be worth your time and effort. 
       
    • The introduction gives background information about the topic and sets out specific questions to be addressed by the authors. You can skim through the introduction if you are already familiar with the paper’s topic.
    • The methods section gives technical details of how the experiments were carried out and serves as a “how-to” manual if you wanted to replicate the same experiments as the authors. This is another section you may want to only skim unless you wish to identify the methods used by the researchers or if you intend to replicate the research yourself.
    • The results are the meat of the scientific article and contain all of the data from the experiments. You should spend time looking at all the graphs, pictures, and tables as these figures will contain most of the data.
    • Lastly, the discussion is the authors’ opportunity to give their opinions. Keep in mind that the discussions are the authors’ interpretations and not necessarily facts. It is still a good place for you to get ideas about what kind of research questions are still unanswered in the field and what types of questions you might want your own research project to tackle.
  4. Reflect on what you have read and draw your own conclusions. As you are reading, jot down any questions that come to mind. Here are some examples of questions you may ask yourself as you read:
    • Have I taken time to understand all the terminology?
    • Am I spending too much time on the less important parts of this article?
    • Do I have any reason to question the credibility of this research?
    • What specific problem does the research address and why is it important?
    • How do these results relate to my research interests or to other works which I have read?

From Northcentral University Library, August 2019

Components of a Scholarly Article

The different parts of a scholarly article

What is a scholarly article? Read this Wikipedia article for the answer. 

Does the Wikipedia article highlight some of the characteristics below?

Scholarly Journal Characteristics

  • Lengthy articles written by experts or scholars for an expert, academic audience (faculty, graduate students, researchers) in a particular field.  
  • Employ a formal, scholarly or technical writing style utilizing a vocabulary that requires some degree of subject knowledge. 
  • The author’s expertise is usually given near the beginning or at the end of the article and an abstract is included. 
  • Sources are credited in footnotes and/or a bibliography. 
  • Often reviewed by an author’s peers before publication. 
  • Purpose of the publication is to share information. Articles are based on original research and experimentation in science or social science or are the writings, criticism and reviews of scholars in the humanities. 
  • Published by academic presses, professional associations, or universities. Any advertisements are usually for books, journals, or conferences. 

Popular Magazine Characteristics 

  • Short articles written by professional writers to entertain or inform a general audience. 
  • Articles are written in an informal, journalistic writing style usually aiming at a fifth grade reading level. 
  • The author’s credentials are not usually indicated 
  • Sources are rarely documented. 
  • Purpose of the publication is to make money. 
  • Published by commercial presses and contain many advertisements 

This video describes the anatomy, or different parts, of a scholarly article. By the end of the video you should be able to quickly determine whether an article is scholarly or not.