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ENG 110 and 110L: Citations

Why must I use citations?

It's important to cite sources you used in your research for several reasons:

  • To show your reader you've done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information
  • To be a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas
  • To avoid plagiarism by quoting words and ideas used by other authors
  • To allow your reader to track down the sources you used by citing them accurately in your paper by way of footnotes, a bibliography or reference list


The standard citation style guide for the humanities, especially languages and literature, is the MLA Handbook, 8th edition, 2016. The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) publishes the manual. It is commonly referred to it as the "MLA Manual" or the "MLA Handbook".



How do I cite a Webpage?


Links to MLA support:

LaGuardia Community College 

Purdue Online Writing Lab



The standard citation style guide book for the fields of business, education, health science, public service, and social science is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, 2010. The American Psychological Association (APA) publishes the manual. We commonly refer to it as "the APA Manual".



Create an APA citation using an EBSCO database



Links to APA Support: 

Free Access to the Publication Manual and Other Resources During the Coronavirus Pandemic

Quick Answers: References and Formatting 

Purdue Online Writing Lab

In-text Citations

APA Style uses what is called an author-date method of citation. The author's surname is inserted with the correct year of publication for the resource.

This citation is used to identify where an idea, thought, or concept originates as you write a research paper. It is placed at the end of a sentence, paragraph, or thought, depending on where your research appears.

Refer to the examples below to review the different ways you can create an in-text citation.

Material Type

In-Text Citation Example

Author’s name in text

Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples…

Author’s name as a reference

The study also showed that there was a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression (Kessler, 2003).

Tow authors’ names as a reference

The effects of the study have been demonstrated in the trials (Abrams & Evans, 2007).

Works with no identified author

Important data collected by the Dept. of Education in Victoria has prompted the creation of fact sheets that can be found online (“Fact Sheet Four,” 2010).


Source: University of Wyoming Libraries

APA Citation Guidelines

Books (Print): One Author


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the work. Location: Publisher.


Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of 

      computer decency.  London, UK:Taylor & Francis.

Books (Print): Two Authors


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the work. Location: Publisher.


Rosellini, G. & Worden, M. (2010). Of course you're angry: A guide to 

       dealing with the emotions of substance abuse. 

     ​  Center City, MN: Hazelden.


Journal Article (Print)


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number),

       page numbers.


Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of 

        Mexican immigration in the United States and its

        implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement

        Review Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.

Chapter in an Edited Book (Print)


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.). 

      Title of the book (pages of chapter).  Location: Publisher.


Haybron, M. D. (2008). Philosophy and the science of the subjective 

       well-being. In M. Eid & R.J. Larsen (Eds.). The science of 

       subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: 

       Guilford Press.

Newspaper Article (Print)


Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Newspaper title.

     pp. page numbers.


Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, 

     social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.



Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx.


Dubov, N. D. (2003). Key Jewish facts. Retrieved from


Journal Article (Online)


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal,

      volume number(issue number), page numbers. 

      doi: or URL of the journal's home page.


Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support,

     marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients.

     Health Psychology, 24(2), 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-


Encyclopedia Entry (Online)


Author, A. A. (Year). WORD. In A. A. Author (Ed.), Title of

      Encyclopedia (Edition). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx.


Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford

     encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.).

     Retrieved from

Website with an Author*


Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. Website title.

     Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx.


Waterman, H. (2016, March 23). On men and women's speech.

      JSTOR Daily. Retrieved from

* Websites with no author will omit the Author section. If no date can be found, you can put (n.d.).

Motion Picture


Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year).

     Title of motion picture [Motion Picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.


Feige, K. (Producer), & Abrams, J. J. (Director). (2012). The Avengers

    [Motion Picture]. United States: Marvel Studios.

Song Recording


Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist

     if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording:

     CD, record, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Date of recording

     if different from copyright date)


Lang, K.D. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD].

       New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.

Source: University of Wyoming Libraries